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2022年挪威成为欧洲最大天然气供应国

点击次数:336 发表时间:2023-3-29

中国石化新闻网

中国石化新闻网讯 据路透社2023年3月19日报道,在去年产能大国出口欧洲的天然气流量下降以后,挪威在2022年主要通过管道出口了超过1200亿立方米的天然气,使其成为欧洲最大的天然气供应国。

这个北欧国家通过海底管道网络向英国和德国等天然气消费国出口天然气。此外,挪威还运输液化天然气(LNG)。

让我们来看看挪威的天然气出口路线。

挪威有多少条输气管道?  

去年,挪威通过一个总长度超过8800公里(5470英里)的管道系统向欧盟和英国输送了1169亿立方米天然气,挪威管道系统由挪威天然气管道运输公司(Gassco)运营的22条独立管道组成。

此外,Alvheim和Martin Linge气田生产的天然气通过其他运营商管理的管道出口到英国。

从Alvheim输送天然气的SAGE管道由Ancala Midstream公司运营,而从Martin Linge输送天然气的FUKA管道由北海中游合作伙伴公司运营。

谁接收挪威的天然气?  

挪威天然气管道系统连接7个接收终端:英国和德国各有两个,比利时、丹麦和法国各有一个。

位于英格兰东海岸的Easington接收终端通过Langeled管道接收挪威天然气,而位于苏格兰的St. Fergus接收终端则连接Flags和Vesterled管道接收挪威天然气。

德国旗下的Dornum和Emden的接收终端位于靠近荷兰边境的北海海岸,德国这两个接收终端连接到Europipe I和II以及Norpipe管道,从挪威进口天然气。

在比利时,位于泽布吕赫港的一个接收终端连接到Zeepipe管道,而通过Franpipe管道的天然气则在法国敦刻尔克的一个终端接收。

自2022年以来,丹麦西海岸的Nybro接收终端通过波罗的海管道接收挪威天然气,这条管道穿过丹麦,然后继续通过海底进入波兰。

挪威出口LNG吗?  

挪威还在北极小镇哈默菲斯特(Hammerfest)运营者一个液化终端,这个项目每年可输送65亿立方米LNG,约占挪威天然气出口总量的5%。

2022年,这个液化终端的LNG出口量仅为37亿立方米,因为这个液化终端在2020年9月发生火灾后一直关闭到2022年5月份。

尽管LNG运输船可以将挪威LNG的运输范围扩大到欧洲以外,但2022年几乎所有的LNG出口都流向了欧洲目的地。

谁在挪威生产天然气?  

挪威吸引了包括德国温特斯豪Dea公司、法国道达尔能源公司、美国康菲公司和英国壳牌公司在内国际大公司。

然而,挪威天然气生产的最大参与者是挪威能源巨头Equinor,这家公司由挪威政府持有多数股权。Equinor生产了超过450亿立方米的天然气,约占挪威2022年1238亿立方米天然气总产量的36%。

Equinor还代表Petoro公司销售天然气,Petoro公司是挪威一家完全国有的石油公司,拥有海上油田的股份,但本身不经营任何资产。

李峻 编译自 路透社

原文如下:

Norway Named Europe’s Largest Gas Supplier in 2022 

Norway exported more than 120 billion cubic meters (bcm) of gas in 2022, mainly via pipelines, making it Europe's largest gas supplier following a drop in the largger producer flows last year.

The Nordic country exports its gas via a network of subsea pipelines to consumers, such as Britain and Germany. In addition, it ships liquefied natural gas (LNG).

Here is a look at Norway's export routes.

HOW MANY PIPELINES ARE THERE?

Norway last year piped 116.9 bcm of gas to the European Union and Britain via a pipeline system of more than 8,800 kilometers (5,470 miles), consisting of 22 individual pipelines operated by Gassco.

In addition, gas produced from the Alvheim and Martin Linge fields is exported to Britain via pipelines managed by other operators.

The SAGE pipeline, which ships gas from Alvheim, is operated by Ancala Midstream, while the FUKA pipeline, which ships gas from Martin Linge, is operated by North Sea Midstream Partners.

WHO RECEIVES NORWEGIAN GAS?

The pipelines connect to seven receiving terminals: Britain and Germany each have two, and Belgium, Denmark and France all have one.

The Easington terminal on the east coast of England receives gas through the Langeled pipeline, while the St. Fergus terminal in Scotland connects to the Flags and the Vesterled pipelines.

Germany's terminals in Dornum and Emden, located along the North Sea coast close to the Dutch border, connect to the Europipe I and II, and the Norpipe pipelines.

In Belgium, a terminal at the port of Zeebrugge connects to the Zeepipe pipeline, while gas through the Franpipe pipeline is received at a terminal in Dunkerque, France.

Since 2022, the Nybro terminal on the Danish west coast receives Norwegian gas through the Baltic Pipe, which crosses Denmark before continuing subsea into Poland.

DOES NORWAY EXPORT LNG?

Norway also operates one liquefaction terminal in the Arctic town of Hammerfest, also known as Melkoeya.

It can deliver 6.5 billion cubic meters of LNG per year, accounting for about 5% of Norwegian gas exports.

In 2022, exports from the terminal were only 3.7 bcm because the plant was offline until the end of May following a fire in September 2020.

Although LNG tankers can extend the reach of Norwegian gas beyond Europe, almost all of the exports went to European destinations in 2022.

WHO PRODUCES GAS IN NORWAY?

The country has attracted international companies, including Wintershall Dea, TotalEnergies, ConocoPhillips and Shell.

However, the biggest player is Equinor, majority-owned by the Norwegian state. It produced more than 45 billion cubic meters of natural gas, roughly 36% of total Norwegian production of 123.8 bcm in 2022.

Equinor also sells gas on behalf of Petoro, a fully state-owned company that holds stakes in offshore fields but does not operate any assets itself.


(责任编辑:黄振 审核:蒋文娟 )